The Situational Leadership Model, from the phrase itself, suggests that leadership as well as management will depend on the situation that a leader needs to do. The leader must select the most suitable leadership style that can be useful in the situation given. This model has four different but interconnected types such as directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating.
This approach in leadership is consist of two behaviors — High Directive and Low Supportive behaviors. The leader in this approach defines specific and gives clear instructions about the task and how its goal will be fulfilled. Intensive supervision, checking and monitoring of the leader is needed. Orienting and giving feedback is also important to guide individual performance. The leader is the one who make most of the decisions.
Directive role is a must for a leader when the individual cannot do and afraid or don’t want to try the task. This approach is used when a problem is serious or has negative consequences if it’s not done successfully. And the leader keeps directive stand to make sure that all the necessary actions will be done.
This approach in leadership is defined by both high Directive and Supportive behaviors. The leader in this approach explains the decisions. He also solicits and opens for suggestions from the members. He gives good feedback, encourages for progress, and continues to direct the task accomplishment. Although individual’s input is considered, the leader still the one made the final decisions.
This approach still needs the leader to explain the task and roles clearly. Directing and supervising is required for individual because they don’t have much experience and praise and motivation is also needed to build self-esteem.
This approach in leadership gives low Directive and high Supportive Behavior. The leader encourages feedback and facilitates self directed decision making and solving problem.
This approach is appropriate to use when the individual can do the task but refuses to do it since they are lacking commitment. Defining the task is not a problem for the leader; instead he should figure out first the reason why the individual are refusing and find ways to convince them to participate and cooperate. Encouragement, motivation and giving positive feedback to individual are the best solution to deal this problem.
This approach in leadership combines both low Directive and Supportive Behaviors. The leader allows and empowers each member to do independently and gives the needed resources to accomplish the job. Decisions are mostly made by individual but still with the involvement of the leader.
The leader in this approach should motivate and encourage individuals to do the task because they have the ability to do it. Since they mainly control in this approach, they should still communicate the information to the leader. Individuals don’t need much support but often recognition for job well done is encouraged.
All leadership styles given are effective when applied appropriately by the leader in the given situation that they are facing. Always take note that there is no single best solution in a problem. Therefore, all those leadership styles also shared individual characteristics in some situations.