Marcus Garvey was an influential political leader of Jamaica. He was a political activist, orator and entrepreneur of Jamaican origin. Though he faced harsh treatment from his white friends on racial basis during the early years of his life, which left a deep negative impression in his mind, he still became a prominent figure in his country, empowering and inspiring black people. Here are the achievements of Garvey:
1. He Was Editor Of The Newspaper “La Nacionale”.
After his first years of engaging in political activity, he visited various regions of Central America, and while living in Costa Rica, he acted as editor of the daily newspaper “La Nacionale”. In the later part of 1911, he moved to Colon, Panama to also serve as editor of a biweekly newspaper. He also worked for the journal “African Times and Orient Review”.
2. He Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
While working as an editor in Costa Rica, he wrote regularly about the situation of migrant workers in the country’s plantation areas. Then, he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) that aimed to unite people with African origin and establish their own country, speaking about political, social and economic freedom of blacks. In 1918, he published “Negro World” to try to convey his message on such freedom in an effective way. He also published his pamphlet “The Negro Race and Its Problems” in order to propagate his inspirational messages.
3. He Established the School of African Philosophy.
Unfortunately, his evening newspaper “The New Jamaican” failed to continue due to financial problems. In 1935, he moved to London and was involved in various developments of the West Indies and Ethiopia. It was also during this time when his “The Tragedy of White Injustice” appeared. Eventually, in 1938, he took the initiative to establish the School of African Philosophy in order to provide training to UNIA leaders.
4. He Established the Black Star Line.
To apply his philosophy of economically empowering the black people, which is better known as Garveyism, he created the shipping company, Black Star Line, which is a move that was regarded as a new start of economic freedom for the blacks. As the provisional president of UNIA in Africa, he discussed his plans to transport African Americans with the Ku Klux Klan. Aside from this, he hugely criticized the Jim Crow laws and the deprivation of black people from their right to vote. With his company, he tried to convince the Liberian government to grant land for settlement of black people of the US.
5. He Created the People’s Political Party in Jamaica.
In 1928, Garvey went on to visit Geneva with the purpose of presenting the Petition of the Negro Race that contained statements about the abuse of blacks around the world. A year later, he set up the People’s Political Party in Jamaica with the aim to protect workers’ rights and provide educational facilities for the poor.
After suffering from two strokes, Marcus Garvey passed away in London on June 10, 1940 at the age of 53. His inspirational messages towards the blacks played a significant role in the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s to the 1960s.